What do the followers of Umar report regarding the succession (khalifa) and which reports agree with the Qur’an and which contradict it?
There are two types of reports in bakri books
Appointment through election:
Abdullah Ibn Umar reported that they spoke to Umar Ibn Al-Khattab: “Will you not appoint a successor?” Umar said: ” If I appoint a successor, then someone has already appointed a successor who is better than me which is Abu Bakr and if I refrain from appointing, then someone who is better than me has already refrained from appointing which is Prophet Muhammad (s.)”[Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 6792]
روى البخار عن عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال قيل لعمر ألا تستخلف قال إن أستخلف فقد استخلف من هو خير مني أبو بكر وإن أترك فقد ترك من هو خير مني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
Hudhaifah reported that the people said: “O Messenger of God, do you not appoint us a successor?” He said: “If I appoint a successor for you after me, then you will disobey my successor and then a penalty will come down. If you choose Abu Bakr as your successor, then you will find him strong in the matter of God and weak in his body, and if you choose Umar as your successor, then you will find him strong in the matter of God and strong in his body, and if you choose Ali as your successor, which you will never do, then you will find him as a right-led and right-leading who will lead you the straight path.
[Bahr-ul-Fawa’id by Abu Bakr Al-Kalabadhi, page 338 Hadith 226]
روى أبو بكر كلاباذي عن حذيفة رضي الله عنه قال: قالوا: يا رسول الله، ألا تستخلف علينا، فقال: إن استخلفت عليكم خليفة من بعدي ثم عصيتم خليفتي نزل العذاب ثم قال: إن تولوا هذا الأمر أبا بكر تجدوه قويا في أمر الله ضعيفا في بدنه، وإن تولوها عمر تجدوه قويا في أمر الله قويا في بدنه، وإن تولوا عليا ولن تفعلوا تجدوه هاديا مهديا يسلك بكم الطريق المستقيم
[ 2. ] Appointment through God:
Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri reported that the Prophet Muhammad (s.) said: “God does not awaken a prophet and does not appoint a successor except that he has two kinds of close companions, one of which commands and urges him to do good and the other of which commands and urges him to do bad, and so the infallible is the one whom God protects from error.[Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 6773]
روى البخاري عن أبي سعيد الخدري عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ما بعث الله من نبي ولا استخلف من خليفة إلا كانت له بطانتان بطانة تأمره بالمعروف وتحضه عليه وبطانة تأمره بالشر وتحضه عليه فالمعصوم من عصم الله تعالى
Abdullah Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet Muhammad (s.) said: “My successors and the guardians and proofs of God authorized by me for the creation after me are twelve. The first of them is my brother and the last of them is my son. They said: “O Messenger of God, who is your brother? He said, “Ali, the son of Abu Talib.” They said, “Who is your son?” He said: “The Mahdi who will fill the earth with justice and righteousness, as it was overshadowed before by tyranny and injustice.” [Fara’id-us-Simtain by Al-Juwaini Ash-Shafi’i, Volume 2, page 312 Hadith 562]
روى صدر الدين الجويني عن عن عبد الله بن عباس، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: إن خلفائي وأوصيائي وحجج الله على الخلق بعدي لاثنا عشر، أولهم أخي وآخرهم ولدي قيل: يا رسول الله ومن أخوك؟ قال: علي بن أبي طالب. قيل: فمن ولدك؟ قال: المهدي الذي يملؤها قسطا وعدلا كما ملئت جورا وظلما
What contradicts the Qur’an is wrong, and what agrees with it is right. Does God let people choose or does He Himself appoint successors?
“God has promised those of you who believe and do righteous deeds that He will appoint them as the successors on earth, just as He has appointed those who lived before them as Successors. [An-Nur 24:55]
وعد الله الذين آمنوا منكم وعملوا الصالحات ليستخلفنهم في الأرض كما استخلف الذين من قبلهم
Al Husayn Bin Muhammad, from Moalla Bin Muhammad, from Al Washa, from Abdullah Bin Sinan who said:‘I asked Abu Abdullahasws about the Words of Allah azwj, Majestic is Hisazwj Majesty: Allah Promises those of you who believe and do righteous deeds that He will Make them Caliphs in the earth just as He Made Caliphs, those from before them [24:55]. He asws said: ‘They asws are the Imams asws’.
Muhammad Bin Al Abbas, from Al Husayn Bin Muhammad, from Moala Bin Muhammad, from Al Washa, from Abdullah Bin Sinan who said: ‘I asked Abu Abdullah asws about the Words of Allah azwj Mighty and Majestic: Allah Promises those of you who believe and do righteous deeds that He will Make them Caliphs in the earth just as He Made Caliphs, those from before them [24:55]. He asws said: ‘It was Revealed regarding Ali asws Bin Abu Talib asws and the Imams asws from his asws sons and He will Establish their Religion for them which He Approves for them, and He will Exchange for them from afterwards, their fear into security [24:55] – it means by it the appearance of Al-Qaim asws.
.221 /368 :1 اآليات تأويل
“It is I who appoint a successor on earth.” [Al-Baqarah 2:30]
إني جاعل في الأرض خليفة
Muhammad Ibn Ishaq reported that he asked Imam Musa Al-Kazim (a.): “Do you point me to the one from whom I take my faith? He said: “This is my son Ali. My father took me by the hand and led me to the tomb of the messenger (s.) and said: “O my son, God said: “It is I who appoint a successor on earth”. (2:30) And when God gives His word, He keeps it.” [Al-Kafi of Al-Kulaini, volume 1, page 190 Hadith 4]
الحسين بن محمد، عن معلى بن محمد، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عبدالله، عن الحسن عن ابن أبي عمير، عن محمد بن إسحاق بن عمار قال: قلت لابي الحسن الاول عليه السلام: ألا تدلني إلى من آخذ عنه ديني؟ فقال: هذا ابني علي إن أبي اخذ بيدي فأدخلني إلى قبر سول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فقال: يا بني إن الله عز وجل قال: إني جاعل في الارض خليفة وإن الله عز وجل إذا قال قولا وفى به
“O David, We have appointed you as a successor on earth.” [Sad 38:26]
يا داوود إنا جعلناك خليفة في الأرض
And Moses said to his brother Aaron, “Be my successor among my people.” [Al-A’raf 7:142]
وقال موسى لأخيه هارون اخلفني في قومي
Al-Husayn Bin Zayd said: ‘So I said to Ja’far asws Bin Muhammad asws: ‘It has been reported other than this, and you (Imams asws) are not lying?’ He asws said: ‘Yes. Allah azwj the Exalted Said in the Decisive (Verses) of Hisazwj Book And when your Lord said to the Angels: I am going to Make a Caliph in the earth [2:30] – so Adam as was the first Caliph of Allah azwj. And O Dawood ! We have Made you a Caliph in the earth [38:26] – So Dawood as was the second. And Haroun as was the Caliph of Musa as, saying it in the Words of the Exalted Be my Caliph, and correct (the people) [7:142]. And he (Aliasws) is the Caliph of Muhammad saww. So why shouldn’t one say he asws is the fourth Caliph?He said: “I will make you an Imam to men.” He (Abraham) said: “And also from among my descendants?” He said: “But my covenant does not extend to those who do wrong. [Al-Baqarah 2:124]
قال إني جاعلك للناس إماما قال ومن ذريتي قال لا ينال عهدي الظالمين
“God accepted the covenant of the children of Israel. And We raised up from their midst twelve leaders.” [Al-Ma’idah 5:12]
ولقد أخذ الله ميثاق بني إسرائيل وبعثنا منهم اثني عشر نقيبا
“And We have appointed from their midst Imams, who guided by Our command.” [As-Sajdah 32:24]
وجعلنا منهم أئمة يهدون بأمرنا
“God has chosen Adam, Noah, the family of Abraham and the family of Imran before all the inhabitants of the world.” [Al Imran 3:33]
إن الله اصطفى آدم ونوحا وآل إبراهيم وآل عمران على العالمين
And their prophet said to them: “God has appointed Talut as a king over you.” They said: “How should he receive the kingdom over us, when we are more entitled to the kingdom than he is, and he has not been given significant wealth? He said: “God has chosen him before you and has also given him a greater measure of knowledge and body stature. And God gives His royal rule to whom He wills. And God embraces and knows everything.” [Al-Baqarah 2:247]
وقال لهم نبيهم إن الله قد بعث لكم طالوت ملكا قالوا أنى يكون له الملك علينا ونحن أحق بالملك منه ولم يؤت سعة من المال قال إن الله اصطفاه عليكم وزاده بسطة في العلم والجسم والله يؤتي ملكه من يشاء والله واسع عليم
“Thy Lord creates and chooses what He wills. But they do not have the choice. Praise be to God! And He is exalted above that which they (associate with Him).” [Al-Qasas 28:68]
وربك يخلق ما يشاء ويختار ما كان لهم الخيرة سبحان الله وتعالى عما يشركون