Women do not inherit land?

Question:

Some innovators claim that according to the infallible (a.) women would not inherit any land and therefore Fatimah (a.) would not be entitled to inherit. The following sources were cited: Al-Kafi, volume 1 page 127; Tahdhib-ul-Ahkam, volume 9 page 298 – 299; Al-Istibsar, volume 4 page 152; Bihar-ul-Anwar, volume 104 page 351.

Answer:

[1] This is about the wives of men, not their daughters.

Zurarah reported from Muhammad Ibn Muslim that Imam Al-Baqir (a.) said: “The women do not inherit from the land nor anything from the land.” Zurarah reported that Imam Al-Baqir (a.) said: “The woman does not inherit anything from the land her man leaves behind or from the houses or weapons or land creatures.” [Al-Kafi of Al-Kulaini, Volume 1, page 127]

عن زرارة عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: النساء لا يرثن من الأرض ولا من العقار شيئا. وعن زرارة، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام أن المرأة لا ترث مما ترك زوجها من القرى والدور والسلاح والدواب شيئا

Zurarah reported that Imam Al-Baqir (a.) said: “The woman does not inherit anything from the land her man leaves behind or from the houses or weapons or land creatures. She inherits the property, furnishings, robes, and other objects of the house that he leaves behind. What he earns in income, sales, forest yields and precious metals comes to her as her right.” Zurarah and Muhammad Ibn Muslim reported that Imam Al-Baqir (a.) said: “The women do not inherit from the land nor from any property.” [Tahdhib-ul-Ahkam by At-Tusi, volume 9 page 298; Al-Istibsar by At-Tusi, volume 4 page 152]

عن زرارة عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام ان المرأة لا ترث مما ترك زوجها من القرى والدور والسلاح والدواب شيئا وترث من المال والفرش والثياب ومتاع البيت مما ترك، ويقوم النقض والأبواب والجذوع والقصب فتعطى حقها منه. وعن زرارة ومحمد بن مسلم عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: النساء لا يرثن من الأرض ولا من العقار شيئا

Abd-ul-Malik Ibn A’yan reported that Imam Al-Baqir (a.) and As-Sadiq (a.) said: “The women are not entitled to the houses and the land.” Maisarah reported that he asked Imam As-Sadiq (a.) about the women: “What is their inheritance? He said: “They are entitled to the value of the bricks, the building, the wood and the precious metals. But as for the land and property, they have no inheritance in it.” I said: “Are they entitled to the garments?” He said: “The garments belong to them”. I said: “How is this permissible for this limited quarter and eighth?” He said: “Because the woman has no descent, so that she is inherited by it, but she comes to them and becomes so and so because of the marriage relationship of the woman and her man or child other people would come to her, so that she is harassed concerning her land.” [Tahdhib-ul-Ahkam by At-Tusi, Volume 9 page 299; Bihar-ul-Anwar by Al-Majlisi, Volume 101 page 351]

عن عبد الملك بن أعين عن أحدهما عليه السلام قال: ليس للنساء من الدور والعقار شئ. وعن ميسرة بباع الزطي عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: سألته عن النساء مالهن من الميراث؟ قال: لهن قيمة الطوب والبناء والخشب والقصب، فاما الأرض والعقار فلا ميراث لهن فيه قال: قلت فالثياب؟ قال: الثياب لهن قال: قلت كيف جاز ذا ولهذه الربع والثمن مسمى؟ قال: لأن المرأة ليس لها نسب ترث به وإنما هي دخيل عليهم وإنما صار هذا كذا لئلا تتزوج المرأة فيجئ زوجها أو ولد من قوم آخرين فيزاحم قوما في عقارهم

[2] What contradicts the Qur’an is to be rejected

Ja’far As-Sadiq (a.) reported that the Prophet Muhammad (s.) said: “Behind every right there is a truth and all rights have a light. What is in agreement with the Book of God, accept it, and what is against the Book of God, let go of it!” [Al-Kafi of Al-Kulaini, Volume 1, page 69 Hadith 1]

علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن النوفلي، عن السكوني، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: إن على كل حق حقيقة، وعلى كل صواب نورا، فما وافق كتاب الله فخذوه وما خالف كتاب الله فدعوه

[3] According to the Qur’an, the daughters of men inherit:

“God instructs you with regard to your children (the following): A male child is entitled to as much as two female children; if there are only women, more than two in number, they are entitled to two thirds of what he leaves behind; if there is only one, she is entitled to half.” [An-Nisa’ 4:11]

يوصيكم الله في أولادكم للذكر مثل حظ الأنثيين فإن كن نساء فوق اثنتين فلهن ثلثا ما ترك وإن كانت واحدة فلها النصف

[4] The daughters of men inherit according to the infallible (a.)

Zurarah reported that Imam Al-Baqir (a.) said: “Ali (a.) inherited the knowledge of the Prophet Muhammad (s.) and Fatimah (a.) inherited his left property. Muhammad Baqir Al-Majlsi writes: “Good (Hasan).” [Al-Kafi of Al-Kulaini, volume 7 page 86 Hadith 1; Mir’at-ul-Uqul of Al-Majlsi, volume 23 page 132]

علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن جميل بن دراج، عن زرارة، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: ورث علي عليه السلام علم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وورثت فاطمة عليها السلام تركته. قال شيخ الإسلام المجلسي رضي الله عنه: حسن

Hamzah Ibn Humran reported that he asked Imam As-Sadiq (a.): “Who inherited from the Prophet Muhammad (s.)?” He said: “Fatimah (a.) inherited from him the possessions of the house and the furnishings and all his possessions.” [Al-Kafi of Al-Kulaini, volume 7 page 86 Hadith 2]

أحمد بن محمد، عن علي بن الحسن، عن علي بن أسباط، عن الحسن بن علي ابن عبد الملك حيدر، عن حمزة بن حمران قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: من ورث رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله؟ فقال: فاطمة عليها السلام وورثته متاع البيت والخرثي وكل ما كان له

Ja’far As-Sadiq (a.) reported that the Prophet Muhammad (s.) said: “Know, o Ali, that I am pleased with the one with whom my daughter Fatimah (a.) is pleased, and so is my Lord and the angels. O Ali, woe to those who oppress her! Woe to him who dispossesses her right! Woe to the one who violates her protection! Woe to him who burns her door! Woe to those who harm her confidants! Woe to the one who attacks her and makes her life difficult! God, I renounce them! They have nothing to do with me!” [Bihar-ul-Anwar of Al-Majlisi, vol. 22 page 485 Hadith 30]

عن السيد رضي الدين الموسوي رضي الله عنه من كتاب خصائص الأئمة عن هارون بن موسى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عمار العجلي الكوفي، عن عيسى الضرير، عن الكاظم، عن أبيه عليهما السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: واعلم يا علي إني راض عمن رضيت عنه ابنتي فاطمة، وكذلك ربي وملائكته، يا علي ويل لمن ظلمها وويل لمن ابتزها حقها، وويل لمن هتك حرمتها، وويل لمن أحرق بابها، وويل لمن آذى خليلها وويل لمن شاقها وبارزها، اللهم إني منهم برئ، وهم مني برآء


Sulaim Ibn Qais reported that Imam Ali (a.) said: “He (Abu Bakr) and his companion (Umar) confiscated Fadak which was in the hands of Fatimah (a.) and from which she made a living during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (s.). Then he (Abu Bakr) asked for proof that it was in her hand and he neither approved her nor Umm Ayman, although he knew it was in her hand. He was not entitled to ask her for proof of what was in her hand, nor to accuse her (of lying). Then the people thought well of him and praised him and said: “He burdened himself with it because of his piety and his privilege”. Then the despicable actions of the two (Abu Bakr and Umar) were considered good and fair to them, and they said: “We think that Fatimah (a.) speaks nothing but the truth, and Ali (a.) testifies nothing but the truth, and if there is another woman besides Umm Ayman, then we would give her Fadak.” In this way they presented themselves as righteous to the ignorant. Who commanded them to be the political leaders so that they would be empowered to give and forbid? But the community was put to the test by the two and they put themselves in a position to which they had neither the right nor the knowledge. When they wanted to dispute Fatimah (a.) while it was in their hand, she said to them: “Is it not in my hand? Is my representative not present over there? Have I not already made a living from it during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (s.)? They said: “Yes, it is so.” She said: “Then why do you ask for proof of what is in my hand? They said: “Because it is the property of the Muslims, and if it is not true, we will not give it back”.” As the people around her listened, she said to them: “Will you reject what the Messenger (s.) has caused and apply to us a special judgment that you do not apply to all other Muslims?O people, hear what these two are doing! Do you both think that I am claiming something that is in the hands of Muslims and belongs to their property? You ask me for proof, but you ask no proof from them?” They said: “Yes, so it is, but surely we demand one from you!” She said: If all the Muslims are claiming what is in my hand, are you asking them for evidence or are you asking me for it?” Therefore the anger of Umar was raised and he said: “This is the property of the Muslims and their possessions of land and it is in the hands of Fatimah who receives their livelihood from it. If she has proved what she claims – that the Messenger of God has given it to her from amongst the Muslims, although it is the property and right of the Muslims – then we will think about it. She said: “It is enough for me, O people, I beseech you by God, did you not hear the Prophet Muhammad (s.) say: “My daughter is the mistress of the women of paradise? They said: “God be a witness, so it is! We heard the messenger say it.” She said: “How should the Mistress of the Women of Paradise claim something that is false and take something that does not belong to her? Do you both think that if four witnesses come out and accuse me of shamefulness or two men accuse me of theft, that you would be able to confirm this for me? As for Abu Bakr, he was silent, but as for Umar, he said: “Yes, we would condemn you to a punishment for transgressing the law of God.” Fatimah (a.) said:You are a liar and a deceiver and you confirm that you have nothing to do with the teachings of the prophet Muhammad (s.)! Whoever considers it permissible that witnesses against the Mistress of the women of Paradise could be truthful and condemned to a punishment for transgressing the judgments of God, is a cursed unbeliever against what God has revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (s.) for it is not permissible for witnesses to be truthful against those from whom God keeps away all evil and whom He always keeps perfectly clean, for they are infallible in the face of every evil and kept clean from every shamefulness. Tell me who the people of this sign are (33:33), O Umar!Would Muslims abandon them and condemn them to a punishment for transgressing the laws of God if a group about them or one of them testified to idolatry or disbelief or shamefulness? Umar said: “Yes, for they are just like all other people! Fatimah (a.) said: “You are a liar and an unbeliever! They are not exactly like all other people, for God preserves their infallibility! He sent down their infallibility and purity and keeps away all evil from them! Whoever testifies against them lies about God and His messenger (a.)”. Abu Bakr said: “O Umar, I invoke you, do not lose a word!” [Kitab Sulaim, page 226 – 227]

عن أبان بن أبي عياش عن سليم بن قيس رضي الله عنهما عن علي بن ابي طالب عليه السلام قال: غصب فدك وقبضه وصاحبه فدك وهي في يد فاطمة عليها السلام مقبوضة قد أكلت غلتها على عهد النبي صلى الله عليه وآله. فسألها البينة على ما في يدها ولم يصدقها ولا صدق أم أيمن. وهو يعلم يقينا – كما نعلم – أنها في يدها. ولم يكن يحل له أن يسألها البينة على ما في يدها ولا أن يتهمها. ثم استحسن الناس ذلك وحمدوه وقالوا: إنما حمله على ذلك الورع والفضل ثم حسن قبح فعلهما أن عدلا عنها فقالا: (نظن إن فاطمة لن تقول إلا حقا وإن عليا لم يشهد إلا بحق، ولو كانت مع أم أيمن امرأة أخرى أمضيناها لها فحظيا بذلك عند الجهال وما هما ومن أمر هما أن يكونا حاكمين فيعطيان أو يمنعان؟ ولكن الأمة ابتلوا بهما فأدخلا أنفسهما فيما لا حق لهما فيه ولا علم لهما به. وقد قالت فاطمة عليها السلام لهما – حين أراد انتزاعها وهي في يدها -: أليست في يدي وفيها وكيلي وقد أكلت غلتها ورسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله حي؟ قالا: بلى. قالت: (فلم تسألني البينة على ما في يدي؟ قالا: لأنها فيئ المسلمين، فإن قامت بينة وإلا لم نمضها قالت لهما – والناس حولهما يسمعون -: أفتريدان أن تردا ما صنع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وتحكما فينا خاصة بما لم تحكما في سائر المسلمين؟ أيها الناس، اسمعوا ما ركباها. أرأيتما إن ادعيت ما في أيدي المسلمين من أموالهم، أتسألونني البينة أم تسألونهم؟ قالا: بل نسألك قالت: فإن ادعى جميع المسلمين ما في يدي تسألونهم البينة أم تسألونني؟ فغضب عمر وقال: إن هذا فيئ للمسلمين وأرضهم، وهي في يدي فاطمة تأكل غلتها، فإن أقامت بينة على ما ادعت أن رسول الله وهبها لها من بين المسلمين – وهي فيئهم وحقهم – نظرنا في ذلك فقالت: حسبي أنشدكم بالله أيها الناس، أما سمعتم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: (إن ابنتي سيدة نساء أهل الجنة؟ قالوا: اللهم نعم، قد سمعناه من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله. قالت: أفسيدة نساء أهل الجنة تدعي الباطل وتأخذ ما ليس لها؟ أرأيتم لو أن أربعة شهدوا علي بفاحشة أو رجلان بسرقة أكنتم مصدقين علي؟ فأما أبو بكر فسكت، وأما عمر فقال: نعم، ونوقع عليك الحد فقالت: كذبت ولؤمت، إلا أن تقر أنك لست على دين محمد صلى الله عليه وآله. إن الذي يجيز على سيدة نساء أهل الجنة شهادة أو يقيم عليها حدا لملعون كافر بما أنزل الله على محمد صلى الله عليه وآله، لأن من أذهب الله عنهم الرجس وطهرهم تطهيرا لا تجوز عليهم شهادة لأنهم معصومون من كل سوء مطهرون من كل فاحشة. حدثني – يا عمر – من أهل هذه الآية، لو أن قوما شهدوا عليهم أو على أحد منهم بشرك أو كفر أو فاحشة كان المسلمون يتبرؤون منهم ويحدونهم؟ قال: نعم، وما هم وسائر الناس في ذلك إلا سواء قالت: كذبت وكفرت، ما هم وسائر الناس في ذلك سواء لأن الله عصمهم ونزل عصمتهم وتطهيرهم وأذهب عنهم الرجس. فمن صدق عليهم فإنما يكذب الله ورسوله. فقال أبو بكر: أقسمت عليك – يا عمر لما سكت

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