Al-Hurr Al-Amili about the report that the scholars are like the prophets of Israel

Question:

What does Al-Hurr Al-Amili say about the report that the scholars are like the prophets?

Answer:

Al-Hurr Al-Amili writes: “The narration: “The scholars of my community are like the prophets of the children of Israel.” Does not remind me that any of our narrators reported them in any of the authentic books. Yes, some of our later scholars reported it in the books other than the books of narrations, and it seems to be part of the reports of the common people (Sunnis) or their fabrications, to make it a means of declaring the scholars independent from the Imams (a.) and because it connects them to their path. They have already gone too far in the worship of their scholars, with the knowledge of the wrongdoing of the majority of them, and their faith in them is no less than the faith of the followers of the Imams (a.) in their Imams (a.).Even more, it might go further than this, as is evident to those who are involved with them or reflect upon their books, and as At-Tabarsi in the work Al-Ihtijaj also reports from Imam Al-Askari (a.) on imitation (taqlid), which is lengthy and also because they believe that the scholars are independent of the Imam (a.), which is pointed out by Al-Qadi Abd-ul-Jabbar in the work Al-Mughni, and they apply to their scholars the term imam and even to many of them the term imam, as it appears in the books about their guardians and other books besides them and its existence may be based on the reports of the mystics or their fabrications,with the intention of proving what they claim in terms of (divine) revelation and the destruction that follows from it, which at this point has no place to be mentioned here, and the scholar Zain-ud-Din reported in the commentary on Dirayat-ul-Hadith of a group of mystical teachers that it is permitted to invent narrations for them. How, then, should one be allowed to think well of them in terms of reporting narrations and on the basis of the evaluation of its validation in our authentic books of narrations, to the exclusion of the path of the general public and mystics, being known to be accused in their intermediation? It has already been found to be confirmed that the comparison has no generality. Rather, a common characteristic shared by those being compared is sufficient and therefore twelve interpretations are possible: The first is that the scholars of the community refer to the twelve Imams (a.) and, like the prophets (a.), they show infallibility and there is no doubt about the verification of this by evidence , mentioned in their place, the second interpretation is that with them the Imams (a.) are meant and that they are the Gods proofs for the creation and obedience to them is obligatory, the third is that with them the Imams (a.) are meant and that they are entitled to privilege, honor and a high position with God, whereas the followers of the Imams (a.) believe that every single one of them is more honored than every single one of the prophets of the Children of Israel. From this point of view, the opposite of the comparison is the case, for the comparison is more lasting and shows illustrations and it is possible to correct it by interpreting it as a rejection and that the comparison is so lasting from there that the addressed persons do not deny it.The comparison would be stronger if it were not far off that the reward of all of them would be higher than the reward of the twelve Imams (a.) and the scholar Al-Murtada already made it clear in the book of rules about the preference of the prophets over the angels that the respected excellence in this matter is an increase of what is due to the most excellent in reward. He also made it clear that this is a thing whereby reason is not deceived into its recognition by the absence of it, and it is only recognized by the narrations, and he responded to this in a similar way as we have responded here because of the verse: “Christ will never refuse to be a servant of God, nor will the angels who are close to Him.” (4:172)He also replied to it in a different way than this. The fourth interpretation is that by them the Imams (a.) are meant, and that obedience to them is obligatory to them just as it is to them, or that each one of them is the most knowledgeable of his contemporaries, or that his knowledge comes from God, even if it is by inspiration, and what goes in this direction, the fifth is that by them the Imams (a.) are meant, and as with them at no time are any of them absent, and much more, at any time, one or two of them are present, so that they both ascend, since the binding nature of prophecy and guidance has been found to be confirmed, the sixth consists in this, that they are meant with the scholars and like them are oppressed, murdered and feared and sometimes hidden, which is also present in both camps, the seventh consists in the fact that all the scholars of the community are meant and the similarity is the obligation of the action according to what they were told by the prophet (s) and the people of his house (a.), as stated in the comparative section, when they report about God or the lawgiver (a.) of that time or the guardians authorized by him (a.)the eighth consists in the fact that by this all scholars are meant and their number like this will be abundant and this meaning is to be found in both camps, with which, seen from here, there is news about the hidden and a miracle of the prophet (s.), the ninth consists in the fact that by this the scholars are meant and like these they exist with fullness at all times with a certain view, with which, seen from here, a miracle of the prophet (s.) is present, which up to the present time corresponds with reality, the tenth consists in the fact that the scholars are meant by it and that they, like them, endure much trouble and great effort through injustice and fear, and this description is present in both comparisons with each other, and in this there is also a miracle present, and if we should discuss the vanity of it with us, we have already responded to it with regard to the narration that this world is a prison for the believer.The eleventh interpretation consists in the fact that the scholars are meant by this and like them they do not obey the herd and this description is mostly found in the two compared ones and from this point of view it is also a miracle, the twelfth interpretation consists in the fact that the scholars are meant by this and like them they have a great knowledge, because if the scholars of the community do not follow the teachings of the prophet (s.) and the people of his house (a.), then they have already acquired a great deal of knowledge, and the most beautiful comparison with the prophets of the Children of Israel lies in knowledge, for the comparison with them should be more lasting, but even if it is present through the expression of the abundance of prophets or their numerous knowledge and its increase over the knowledge of the scholars of the community, it is not above the knowledge of the Imams (a.), for they are certainly the most knowledgeable, and there may be another interpretation of it which involves a collection of similar characteristics and parables, what of them can be brought together, but God knows best.” [Al-Fawa’id-ut-Tusiyyah, pages 376 – 378]

قال الحر العاملي: حديث علماء أمتي كأنبياء بني إسرائيل لا يحضرني ان أحدا من محدثين رواه في شيء من الكتب المعتمدة نعم نقله بعض المتأخرين من علمائنا في غير كتب الحديث وكأنه من روايات العامة أو موضوعاتهم ليجعلوه وسيلة إلى الاستغناء بالعلماء عن الأئمة عليهم السلام ولأنه يناسب طريقتهم فقد أفرطوا في تعظيم علمائهم مع علمهم بفسق أكثرهم، واعتقادهم فيهم لا تقصر عن اعتقاد الإمامية في أئمتهم بل ربما زاد عليه كما يظهر لمن خالطهم أو تأمل كتبهم وكما دل عليه الحديث الذي رواه الطبرسي في الاحتجاج عن العسكري عليه السلام في التقليد وهو طويل ولأنهم يعتقدون ان العلماء يغنون عن الإمام كما أشار إليه القاضي عبد الجبار في المغني وهم يطلقون على علمائهم لفظ الأئمة وعلى كثير منهم لفظ الإمام كما في كتب رجالهم وغيره من كتبهم ويحتمل كونه من روايات الصوفية أو موضوعاتهم لإرادة إثبات ما يدعونه من الكشف وما يترتب عليه من المفاسد التي ليس هذا محل ذكرها. وقد نقل الشيخ زين الدين في شرح دراية الحديث عن جماعة من مشايخ الصوفية أنه يجوز عندهم وضع الحديث فكيف يجوز حسن الظن بهم في نقل الحديث وعلى تقدير ثبوته في كتب حديثنا المعتمدة من غير طريق العامة والصوفية حيث انهم متهمون في نقله كما عرفت فقد تقرر ان وجه الشبه لا عموم له بل يكفى صفة واحدة من الصفات المشتركة بين المشبه والمشبه به فهو يحتمل وجوها اثنى عشر أحدها: أن يكون المراد بعلماء الأمة الأئمة الاثني عشر عليهم السلام ويكون وجه الشبه العصمة ولا ريب في ثبوتها في الطرفين بأدلة مذكورة في محلها وثانيها: أن يكون المراد بهم الأئمة عليهم السلام ووجه الشبه كونهم حجة الله على الخلق وكون طاعتهم مفترضة وثالثها: أن يكون المراد بهم الأئمة عليهم السلام ووجه الشبه الفضل والشرف وعلو المنزلة عند الله لكن اعتقاد الإمامية ان كل واحد منهم أشرف من كل واحد من أنبياء بني إسرائيل وحينئذ يكون من عكس التشبيه لان المشبه أقوى وله نظائر ويمكن تصحيحه بحمله على الإنكار وبأن المشبه به أقوى من حيث ان المخاطبين لا ينكرونه انما ينكرون المشبه لوجه آخر وهو ان الأئمة لما كانوا اثنا عشر وأنبياء بني إسرائيل ألوفا كثيرة لا تكاد تحصى كان المشبه به أقوى إذ لا يبعد كون ثوابهم كلهم أكثر من ثواب اثنى عشر إماما وقد صرح السيد المرتضى في رسالة تفضيل الأنبياء على الملائكة بان الأفضيلة المراعاة في هذا الباب هي زيادة ما يستحقه الأفضل من الثواب وصرح أيضا بان ذلك أمر لا يهتدى العقل بمجرده إلى معرفته وانما يعرف من النقل وأجاب بمثل ما أجبنا به هنا عن قوله تعالى: لن يستنكف المسيح أن يكون عبدا لله ولا الملائكة المقربون وأجاب بغير ذلك أيضا ورابعها: ان المراد بهم الأئمة عليهم السلام ووجه الشبه فرض الطاعة أو كون كل واحد منهم أعلم أهل زمانه أو كونه علمه من الله ولو بالإلهام ونحو ذلك وخامسها: أن يكون المراد بهم الأئمة عليهم السلام ويكون وجه الشبه انه لا يخلو زمان منهم بل في كل زمان واحد منهم أو اثنان فصاعدا لما تقرر من وجوب النبوة والإمامة وسادسها: أن يكونوا هم المراد من العلماء ويكون وجه الشبه كونهم مظلومين مقتولين خائفين وتارة غائبين فإن ذلك موجود في الطرفين وسابعها: أن يكون المراد جميع علماء الأمة ويكون وجه الشبه وجوب العمل بما يروونه عنه وعن أهل بيته عليهم السلام كما في طرف المشبه به إذا نقلوا عن الله أو عن صاحب الشريعة في ذلك الزمان أو أوصيائه وثامنها: أن يكون المراد جميع العلماء ويكون وجه الشبه كثرتهم فان هذا المعنى موجود في الطرفين ويكون حينئذ إخبارا بالغيب واعجازا له عليه السلام وتاسعها: ان يراد العلماء ويكون وجه الشبه وجودهم في كل عصر مع قطع النظر عن الكثرة وهو حينئذ اعجاز له عليه السلام لمطابقة الخبر الواقع إلى الآن وعاشرها: أن يكون المراد العلماء ويكون وجه الشبه تحمل المشاق الكثيرة والمتاعب العظيمة من الظلم والخوف فان هذا الوصف موجود في المشبه والمشبه به وفيه اعجاز أيضا، وان نوقش في عدم كونه كليا أجبنا بما مر في حديث الدنيا سجن المؤمن وحادي عشرها: أن بكون المراد العلماء ويكون وجه الشبه عدم إطاعة الرعية لهم فان هذا الوصف غالب في المشبه والمشبه به وفيه حينئذ أيضا اعجاز وثاني عشرها: أن يكون المراد العلماء ويكون وجه الشبه كثرة العلم فان علماء الأمة إذا تعلموا العلوم المنقولة عنه وعن أهل بيته عليهم السلام فقد علموا علما كثيرا وحسن التشبيه بأنبياء بني إسرائيل في العلم فان المشبه به ينبغي أن يكون أقوى ولو باعتبار كثرة الأنبياء أو كثرة علومهم وزيادتها على علوم علماء الأمة لا على علوم الأئمة عليهم السلام فإنهم أعلم قطعا ويحتمل وجوها أخر بل يحتمل كون وجه الشبه مجموع الصفات وأمثالها أو ما يمكن اجتماعه منها والله تعالى أعلم

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