Innovators are disbelievers

Question:

Are the people of the innovation attributable to belief or disbelief?

Answer:

An-Nahiki reported that Imam Ja’far As-Sadiq (a.) said: “Whoever introduces a parable or picks up a dog has already left from Islam.” Then someone said to him: “Then many people have already been perished.” He said: “With my words about the one who introduces a parable, one is meant who adds to the faith what does not belong to the teachings of God and then invites people to it, and with my words about the one who picks up a dog, one is meant who picks up an enemy of the people of the house (a.) and gives him something to eat and drink, and through this behavior he has already left Islam.” [Wasa’il-ush-Shi’ah of Al-Hurr Al-Amili, Volume 16 Page 430 Hadith 2]

محمد بن علي بن الحسين في معاني الأخبار عن محمد بن علي ماجيلويه عن عمه محمد بن أبي القاسم عن أحمد بن أبي عبد الله عن النهيكي رفعه إلى أبي عبد الله عليه السلام أنه قال: من مثل مثالا أو اقتنى كلبا فقد خرج من الاسلام فقلت له: هلك إذا كثير من الناس فقال: إنما عنيت بقولي: من مثل مثالا من نصب دينا غير دين الله ودعا الناس إليه و بقولي من اقتنى كلبا مبغضا لأهل البيت اقتناه فأطعمه وسقاه من فعل ذلك فقد خرج من الاسلام

Abu Abdillah Al-Mufid writes: “The followers of the Imams (a.) agree that the people of the innovations are all disbelievers and it is incumbent upon the Imam (a.) to ask them to repent, if possible, after they have been invited and clear evidence has been given to them. If they turn away from their innovations, they convert to the right, and if they do not, it is incumbent upon him to punish them with death because of their apostasy from the faith, and whoever of them dies with a innovation belongs to the dwellers of fire. The Mu’tazilites have agreed to the contrary, and they claim that the majority of the people of the innovators are wicked but not disbelievers, and that there are those among them who do not commit transgression because of their innovation and thus do not leave Islam, such as those of the followers of Ibn Shabib who affirm the faith without deeds, and those who are cut off (Batriyyah) among the people who declare Zaid Ibn Ali (a.) as an Imam and agree with them on the principles of faith but disagree with them on the characteristics of the Imam.” [Awa’il-ul-Maqalat, page 49]

قال شيخ الإسلام ابو عبد الله المفيد رضي الله عنه: واتفقت الإمامية على أن أصحاب البدع كلهم كفار وأن على الإمام أن يستتيبهم عند التمكن بعد الدعوة لهم وإقامة البينات عليهم فإن تابوا عن بدعهم وصاروا إلى الصواب و إلا قتلهم لردتهم عن الإيمان وأن من مات منهم على تلك البدعة فهو من أهل النار وأجمعت المعتزلة على خلاف ذلك وزعموا أن كثيرا من أهل البدع فساق وليسوا بكفار وأن فيهم من لا يفسق ببدعته و لا يخرج بها عن الإسلام كالمرجئة من أصحاب ابن شبيب والبترية من الزيدية الموافقة لهم في الأصول و إن خالفوهم في صفات الإمام

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