How did the Holy Prophet (s.) receive his first revelation in accordance with the reports of the infallible (a.)?
Muhammad Ibn Al-Husain reported that Imam Ali (a.) said: “Already when the Prophet Muhammad (s.) stopped taking breast milk, God instructed the most powerful angel among the angels to let him walk the world day and night on the path of decency, virtue and morality and i used to follow him like a camel follows its mother. Every day he revealed miracles of his morality to me and ordered me to imitate him in it. Every year he retreated into the cave of Hira’ and nobody but me could see him during that time. On that day no one gathered for Islam except the Messenger (s.), his wife Khadijah (a.) and me as the third of the two. I saw the light of revelation and message and smelled the fragrance of prophethood and i already heard the cry of Satan when God gave him the revelation, whereupon I asked: “O Messenger of God, what is that cry?” He (s.) replied: “This is Satan, who gave up hope of serving him. You hear what i hear and you see what i see, but you are not a prophet, but a counselor on the way of salvation.” [Bihar-ul-Anwar of Al-Majlisi, Volume 14 Pages 475 – 476]
Abdullah Ibn Kaisan reported that Imam Al-Baqir (a.) said: “When the angel Gabriel (a.) was sent down to the prophet (s.), he said: “O Muhammad, read!” The Messenger (s.) answered: “What shall i read?” Gabriel (a.) said: “Read in the name of your Lord, Who created.” Which means: “He who created your light before anything else.” [Bihar-ul-Anwar of Al-Majlisi, Volume 36 page 176 Hadith 166]
Amr Ibn Thabit reported that Imam As-Sadiq (a.) was asked: “What is it about the loss of consciousness that would have seized the Prophet Muhammad (s.). Was there such a thing when Gabriel (a.) came down to him?” He said: ” No, for Gabriel (a.) did not come in to the Messenger (s.) until he asked him for permission, and when he came in to him, he sat down before him as the servant sits down.” [Bihar-ul-Anwar of Al-Majlisi, volume 18 page 260 Hadith 12]
Amr Ibn Jumai’ reported that Imam As-Sadiq (a.) said: “Whenever the angel Gabriel (a.) came to the Prophet Muhammad (s.), he sat down before him as the servant sits down and he was not allowed to come in to him until he asked the messenger (s.) for permission.” [Bihar-ul-Anwar of Al-Majlisi, volume 26 page 338 Hadith 2]
Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.) reported that the Prophet Muhammad (s.) said: “The angels are our servants and the servants of those who love us. O Ali, the angels who hold the throne and are around it, praise their Lord and ask forgiveness for those who believe in our guardianship (Wilayah).” [Bihar-ul-Anwar of Al-Majlisi, Volume 11 pp. 139- 140 Hadith 6]
Muhammad Ibn Muslim and Muhammad Ibn Marwan reported that Imam As-Sadiq (a.) said: “The Prophet Muhammad (s.) always knew with certainty that Gabriel (a.) is from God.” [Bihar-ul-Anwar of Al-Majlisi, Volume 5 Page 203 Hadith 28]
Muhammad Ibn Harun reported that Imam As-Sadiq (a.) said: “The Prophet Muhammad (s.) always had the knowledge without doubt that Gabriel (a.) is from God.” [Tafsir Al-Ayyashi, Volume 2 Page 201 Hadith 105]
Zurarah reported that he asked Imam As-Sadiq (a.): “How is it that the Prophet Muhammad (s.) was never afraid of the one who came to him from God, that he might be an evil of Satan to him?” He said: “When God appoints a servant as a messenger, He sends down His peace and tranquility on him. Therefore, Gabriel (a.), who came to him from God, was the same one whom he could see with his own eyes.” [Bihar-ul-Anwar of Al-Majlisi, Volume 18 Page 262 Hadith 16]
What are the differences between this and the reports circulating among the Sunnis?
Aishah said: “The first thing that Muhammad (s.) began with the revelation was the good dream in his sleep and he saw no dream except that it happened just like the morning light. He then began to love the solitude and retreated to the cave of Hira’, where he prayed incessantly for many nights before returning home to his family to provide for his stay. He then returned to his wife Khadijah (a.) to provide for himself as well until the truth came to him while he was in the cave of Hira” [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 1 Page 3 Hadith 3]
حدثنا يحيى بن بكير قال حدثنا الليث عن عقيل عن ابن شهاب عن عروة بن الزبير عن عائشة أم المؤمنين أنها قالت أول ما بدئ به رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من الوحي الرؤيا الصالحة في النوم فكان لا يرى رؤيا الا جاءت مثل فلق الصبح ثم حبب إليه الخلاء وكان يخلو بغار حراء فيتحنث فيه وهو التعبد الليالي ذوات العدد قبل أن ينزع إلى أهله ويتزود لذلك ثم يرجع إلى خديجة فيتزود لمثلها حتى جاءه الحق وهو في غار حراء
Aishah said: “Then the angel came to him and said: “Read! Muhammad (s.) replied: “I cannot read!” [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 1 Page 3 Hadith 3]
حدثنا يحيى بن بكير قال حدثنا الليث عن عقيل عن ابن شهاب عن عروة بن الزبير عن عائشة أم المؤمنين أنها قالت: فجاءه الملك فقال اقرأ قال ما انا بقارئ
Aishah reported that the Prophet Muhammad (s.) said: “Therefore, the angel seized and pressed me until i was exhausted. Then he let go of me and said: “Read!” I answered: “I cannot read.” Then the angel took hold of me and pressed me a second time until I was exhausted. Then he let go of me and said: “Read.” I answered: “I can’t read.” Then the angel grabbed me and pressed me for a third time until i was exhausted. Then he let go of me and said: “Read in the name of your Lord, Who created. He created man from a clot of blood. Read, for your Lord is all good.” – 96:1-3 – Then Muhammad returned with a troubled heart.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari, volume 1 page 3 Hadith 3]
حدثنا يحيى بن بكير قال حدثنا الليث عن عقيل عن ابن شهاب عن عروة بن الزبير عن عائشة أم المؤمنين أنها قالت: قال فاخذني فغطني حتى بلغ منى الجهد ثم أرسلني فقال اقرأ قلت ما انا بقارئ فاخذني فغطني الثانية حتى بلغ منى الجهد ثم أرسلني فقال أقرأ فقلت ما أنا بقارئ فاخذني فغطني الثالثة ثم أرسلني فقال أقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلق خلق الانسان من علق اقرأ وربك الأكرم فرجع بها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يرجف فؤاده
Aishah reported that Muhammad (s.) then went to his wife Khadijah Bint Khuwailid (a.) and said: “Wrap me up, wrap me up! Then they wrapped him up until the fear left him. He told Khadijah (a.) about it and said: “I was afraid for my life.” Khadijah (a.) replied: “No, by God, God will never humiliate you. You maintain good relations with your relatives, help the poor and needy, receive your guests kindly and support those who are really in need.” Aishah said: “Then Khadijah (a.) brought Muhammad (s.) to her cousin Waraqah Ibn Nawfal Ibn Asad Ibn Abd Al-Uzzah. He had converted to the Nazarenes in the time of ignorance and used to write texts in Hebrew and to copy the Gospel in Hebrew for as long as God wanted. He was an old man who had already been struck by blindness. Khadijah (a.) said to Varaqah: “O son of my uncle, listen to your brother’s son! Waraqah said: “O son of my brother, what did you see?” Then Muhammad (s.) told him what he had seen, and Waraqah said: “This is the Law which God sent to Moses. i wish i were still young and could experience the time when your people will drive you out.” Muhammad (s.) asked: “Will they drive me away?” Waraqah replied: “Yes, because no man came with anything like you without being met with hostility. If i should be alive until that day, i will support you with all my strength. But Waraqah was not spared death and the revelation ended for a time.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 1 Page 3 – 4 Hadith 3]
حدثنا يحيى بن بكير قال حدثنا الليث عن عقيل عن ابن شهاب عن عروة بن الزبير عن عائشة أم المؤمنين أنها قالت: فدخل على خديجة بنت خويلد فقال زملوني زملوني فزملوه حتى ذهب عنه الروع فقال لخديجة وأخبرها الخبر لقد خشيت على نفسي فقالت خديجة كلا والله ما يخزيك الله أبدا انك لتصل الرحم وتحمل الكل وتكسب المعدوم وتقري الضيف وتعين على نوائب الحق فانطلقت به خديجة حتى أتت به ورقة بن نوفل بن أسد بن عبد العزى ابن عم خديجة وكان امرأ قد تنصر في الجاهلية وكان يكتب الكتاب العبراني فيكتب من الإنجيل بالعبرانية ما شاء الله أن يكتب وكان شيخا كبيرا قد عمى فقالت له خديجة يا ابن عم اسمع من ابن أخيك فقال له ورقة يا ابن أخي ماذا ترى فأخبره رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما رأى فقال له ورقة هذا الناموس الذي نزل الله على موسى يا ليتني فيها جذعا ليتني أكون حيا إذ يخرجك قومك فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أو مخرجي هم قال نعم لم يأت رجل قط بمثل ما جئت به الا عودي وان يدركني يومك أنصرك نصرا مؤزرا ثم لم ينشب ورقة أن توفى وفتر الوحي
Al-Aswad Ibn Qais reported that Jundab Ibn Abdillah said: “The angel Gabriel (a.) did not appear to the Prophet Muhammad (s.) for a while, whereupon a woman of the Quraish said: “His Satan has forsaken him!” So it was sent down: “In the morning and at night, when everything is quiet! Your Lord has neither forsaken nor detested you.” – 93:1-3 – [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 1073]
حدثنا محمد بن كثير قال أخبرنا سفيان عن الأسود بن قيس عن جندب بن عبد الله رضي الله عنه قال احتبس جبريل صلى الله عليه وسلم على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت امرأة من قريش أبطأ عليه شيطانه فنزلت والضحى والليل إذا سجى ما ودعك ربك وما قلى
Abdullah Ibn Abbas reported: “A Satan, who is called the Shining One, used to appear to the Prophet Muhammad (s.) in the form of Gabriel (a.) and during his reading he would say to him: “These are the exalted cranes whose intercession is to be hoped for.” [Al-Jami’ Li-Ahkam Al-Qur’an by Al-Qurtubi, Volume 12 page 84; At-Tafsir-ul-Kabir / Mafatih-ul-Ghaib by Ar-Razi, Volume 23 page 53].
وقد قال ابن عباس: إن شيطانا يقال له الأبيض كان قد أتى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في صورة جبريل عليه السلام وألقى في قراءة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: تلك الغرانيق العلا، وأن شفاعتهن لترتجي