What does “Taghut” mean?

The term “taghut” ( ุทุงุบูˆุช ) goes back to the verb “tagha” ( ุทุบู‰ ) and means “exceeding the measure” or “transgressing”, as it is used in the Qur’an regarding the rise of water:
ุฅู†ุง ู„ู…ุง ุทุบู‰ ุงู„ู…ุงุก

“When the water exceeded the limit.” [Al-Haqqah 69:11]

It is therefore not a problem in itself to translate the term “Taghut” ( ุทุงุบูˆุช ) for a person as “transgressor.” However, the term alone does not tell in which religious sense the measure is exceeded.

Sa’id Ibn Abdillah reported that he told Imam As-Sadiq (a.): “With us are people who acquire understanding (fiqh). They say: “We are dealing with something that we do not know in the Book nor in custom (Sunnah). We express our own view on it.” He said: “They have become liars. There is nothing, except that it is found in the book and the custom.” [Al-Ikhtisas of Al-Mufid, page 281 Hadith 2]

ุนู† ุณุนูŠุฏ ุจู† ุนุจุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู† ุงู„ุฅู…ุงู… ุงู„ุตุงุฏู‚ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู… ุฃู†ู‡ ู‚ุงู„ ู„ู‡: ุฅู† ู…ู† ุนู†ุฏู†ุง ู…ู…ู† ูŠุชูู‚ู‡ ูŠู‚ูˆู„ูˆู†: ูŠุฑุฏ ุนู„ูŠู†ุง ู…ุง ู„ุง ู†ุนุฑูู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ูˆุงู„ุณู†ุฉ ูู†ู‚ูˆู„ ููŠู‡ ุจุฑุฃูŠู†ุงุŒ ูู‚ุงู„: ูƒุฐุจูˆุง ู„ูŠุณ ุดุฆ ุฅู„ุง ูˆู‚ุฏ ุฌุงุก ููŠ ุงู„ูƒุชุงุจ ูˆุฌุงุกุช ููŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู†ุฉ

Muhammad Ibn Murtada reported that Imam Ali (a.) said: “Any judge who judges without the saying of us the people of the house is a transgressor (Taghut).” [Kitab-ul-Wafi of Al-Kashani, Volume 1 Page 290]

ุนู† ู…ุญู…ุฏ ุจู† ู…ุฑุชุถู‰ ุนู† ุงู„ุฅู…ุงู… ุนู„ูŠ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู… ู‚ุงู„: ูƒู„ ุญูƒู… ุญูƒู… ุจุบูŠุฑ ู‚ูˆู„ู†ุง ุฃู‡ู„ ุงู„ุจูŠุช ูู‡ูˆ ุทุงุบูˆุช

Sama’ah Ibn Mihran reported that he asked Imam Al-Kazim (a.): “Is every statement that you have expressed, contained in the Book of God and His custom (Sunnah) or are you expressing your own view?” He said: “Every statement that we express is contained in the Book of God and the custom (Sunnah) of His Prophet (s.).” [Basa’ir-ud-Darajat of As-Saffar, page 321 Hadith 1]

ุนู† ุณู…ุงุนุฉ ุจู† ู…ู‡ุฑุงู† ุนู† ุงู„ุฅู…ุงู… ุงู„ูƒุงุธู… ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู… ู‚ุงู„: ู‚ู„ุช ู„ู‡ ูƒู„ ุดุฆ ุชู‚ูˆู„ ุจู‡ ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆุณู†ุชู‡ ุฃูˆ ุชู‚ูˆู„ูˆู† ููŠู‡ ุจุฑุฃูŠูƒู… ู‚ุงู„ ุจู„ ูƒู„ ุดุฆ ู†ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆุณู†ุฉ ู†ุจูŠู‡

Nu’man Ibn Muhammad reported that Imam Ali (a.) said: “Any judge who judges without the words of us the people of the house is a transgressor (Taghut). Then he read: “They want to let the transgressor (Taghut) judge, whereas they were ordered to disbelieve (Kafir) in him.” (4:60) Then he said: “By Allah! they did so and let the transgressor (Taghut) judge, and Satan led them astray, so that no one escaped this verse except us and our followers, and the others besides them fell into destruction. He who did not recognize their right, God has cursed.” [Al-Mustadrak of An-Nuri, volume 17 page 244 hadith 7]

ุนู† ู†ุนู…ุงู† ุจู† ู…ุญู…ุฏ ุนู† ุงู„ุฅู…ุงู… ุนู„ูŠ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู… ู‚ุงู„: ูƒู„ ุญุงูƒู… ูŠุญูƒู… ุจุบูŠุฑ ู‚ูˆู„ู†ุง ุฃู‡ู„ ุงู„ุจูŠุช ูู‡ูˆ ุทุงุบูˆุช ูˆู‚ุฑุฃ ูŠุฑูŠุฏูˆู† ุงู† ูŠุชุญุงูƒู…ูˆุง ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุทุงุบูˆุช ูˆู‚ุฏ ุฃู…ุฑูˆุง ุฃู† ูŠูƒูุฑูˆุง ุจู‡ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ ุซู… ู‚ุงู„ ู‚ุฏ ูˆุงู„ู„ู‡ ูุนู„ูˆุง ูˆุชุญุงูƒู…ูˆุง ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุทุงุบูˆุช ูˆุฃุถู„ู‡ู… ุงู„ุดูŠุทุงู† ุถู„ุงู„ุง ุจุนูŠุฏุง ูู„ู… ูŠู†ุฌ ู…ู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ ุงู„ุง ู†ุญู† ูˆุดูŠุนุชู†ุง ูˆู‚ุฏ ู‡ู„ูƒ ุบูŠุฑู‡ู… ูู…ู† ู„ู… ูŠุนุฑู ุญู‚ู‡ู… ูุนู„ูŠู‡ ู„ุนู†ุฉ ุงู„ู„ู‡

Isma’il Ibn Makhlad reported that Imam As-Sadiq (a.) said: “O you people who have God as guardian of their affairs, you are subject to the traditions of the Messenger (s.) and his custom (Sunnah) and after him to the traditions of the rightly guiding Imams of the people of the house of the Messenger (a. ) and their custom (Sunnah), because those who followed these things were guided, and those who did not and turned away from them went astray, for it is to them that God commanded obedience (4:59) and closeness (5:55) and our Father, the Messenger of God (s. ), said: “To insist on the act of going according to the traditions and customs (Sunnah), even if it was done in small measure, makes God more satisfied and ultimately provides more benefit to Him than the effort (Ijtihad) of innovating (Bid’ah) and following the lusts. Behold, those who follow the innovations and desires without guidance from God are misguided and every misguidance is a innovation and every innovation (bid’ah) is in the fire.” [Al-Kafi of Al-Kulaini, Volume 8 Page 8 Hadith 1]

ุนู† ุฅุณู…ุงุนูŠู„ ุจู† ู…ุฎู„ุฏ ุนู† ุงู„ุฅู…ุงู… ุงู„ุตุงุฏู‚ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู… ู‚ุงู„: ุฃูŠุชู‡ุง ุงู„ุนุตุงุจุฉ ุงู„ุญุงูุธ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ู„ู‡ู… ุฃู…ุฑู‡ู… ุนู„ูŠูƒู… ุจุขุซุงุฑ ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุขู„ู‡ ูˆุณู†ุชู‡ ูˆุขุซุงุฑ ุงู„ุงุฆู…ู‡ ุงู„ู‡ุฏุงุฉ ู…ู† ุฃู‡ู„ ุจูŠุช ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุขู„ู‡ ู…ู† ุจุนุฏู‡ ูˆุณู†ุชู‡ู…ุŒ ูุฅู†ู‡ ู…ู† ุฃุฎุฐ ุจุฐู„ูƒ ูู‚ุฏ ุงู‡ุชุฏู‰ ูˆู…ู† ุชุฑูƒ ุฐู„ูƒ ูˆุฑุบุจ ุนู†ู‡ ุถู„ ู„ุงู†ู‡ู… ู‡ู… ุงู„ุฐูŠู† ุงู…ุฑ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุจุทุงุนุชู‡ู… ูˆ ูˆู„ุงูŠุชู‡ู… ูˆู‚ุฏ ู‚ุงู„ ุฃุจูˆู†ุง ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุขู„ู‡: ุงู„ู…ุฏุงูˆู…ุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุนู…ู„ ููŠ ุงุชุจุงุน ุงู„ุขุซุงุฑ ูˆุงู„ุณู†ู† ูˆุฅู† ู‚ู„ ุฃุฑุถู‰ ู„ู„ู‡ ูˆุฃู†ูุน ุนู†ุฏู‡ ููŠ ุงู„ุนุงู‚ุจุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ุงุฌุชู‡ุงุฏ ููŠ ุงู„ุจุฏุน ูˆุงุชุจุงุน ุงู„ุงู‡ูˆุงุก ุฃู„ุง ุฅู† ุงุชุจุงุน ุงู„ุงู‡ูˆุงุก ูˆุงุชุจุงุน ุงู„ุจุฏุน ุจุบูŠุฑ ู‡ุฏู‰ ู…ู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุถู„ุงู„ ูˆูƒู„ ุถู„ุงู„ุฉ ุจุฏุนุฉ ูˆูƒู„ ุจุฏุนุฉ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุงุฑ

Hasan Ibn Ali reported that Imam Ali (a.) said: “As far as the custom (Sunnah) is concerned, it is the tradition of the Messenger of God (s.) and as far as the innovation (Bid’ah) is concerned, it is what contradicts his custom.” [Tuhaf-ul-Uqul of Al-Harrani, page 211]

ุนู† ๏บ๏ปŸ๏บค๏บด๏ปฆ ๏บ‘๏ปฆ ๏ป‹๏ป ๏ปฒ ๏บ‘๏ปฆ ๏บ๏ปŸ๏บค๏บด๏ปด๏ปฆ ๏บ‘๏ปฆ ๏บท๏ปŒ๏บ’๏บ” ุนู† ุงู„ุฅู…ุงู… ุนู„ูŠ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู… ู‚ุงู„: ุฃู…ุง ุงู„ุณู†ุฉ ูุณู†ุฉ ุฑุณูˆู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุขู„ู‡. ูˆุฃู…ุง ุงู„ุจุฏุนุฉ ูู…ุง ุฎุงู„ูู‡ุง

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